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The case depicts the circumstances faced by the Costa Rican government in 2010 where the country was exposed to serious penalties by the World Trade Organization (WTO) due to subsidies awarded by the government to the production of rice. Moreover, a newly elected government had taken power, and established new sustainable development goals for the country. Against this background, rice production became a critical agenda for the central government including the Foreign Trade Ministry (COMEX), the Agriculture and Animal Production Ministry (MAG), and the Economy, Industry, and Trade Ministry (MEIC). Rice producers expressed their surprise towards the possible sanctions and their disagreement with a possible new rice production policy. On the other hand, consumer groups favored a possible shift in policy, while exporters raised their concerns towards potential conflicts with local producers.